The United States has found itself in a “Sputnik moment for modernizing our military,”according to some national security officials. Like the period following the Soviet Union’s satellite demonstration in 1957, we are again in a technological arms race with formidable rivals. Many top defense officials believe China is poised to lead the future of warfare through its open and aggressive pursuit of artificial intelligence (AI), which many consider a linchpin of high-tech conflict in the years ahead. China has devised plans and dedicated enormous resources to meet its stated goal of surpassing the U.S. in AI by 2030. Although Russia lags behind, it has also expressed its intentions to be a player in this race.